This research was originally published in 2016 by Bradley Field Bale, Amy Lynn Doneen and David John Vigerust.
We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.
Background—The relationship between periodontitis (PD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is debated. PD is common in patients with CVD. It has been postulated that PD could be causally related to the risk for CVD, a hypothesis tested in PAROKRANK.
Methods and Results—805 patients (age < 75 years) with a first MI and 805 age (mean 62±8) gender (male 81%) and area matched controls without MI underwent standardized dental examination including panoramic x-ray. The periodontal status was defined as healthy (80% remaining bone) or as mild-moderate (79-66%) or severe PD (<66%). Great efforts were made to collect information on possibly related confounders (§100 variables). Statistical comparisons included Student’s pair-wise t-test and Mc Nemar´s test in 2x2 contingency tables. Contingency tables exceeding 2x2 with ranked alternatives were tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Odds Ratios (95% CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. PD was more common (43%) in patients than in controls (33%; p<0.001). There was an increased risk for MI among those with PD (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.21-1.83), which remained significant (OR =1.28; 95% CI 1.03-1.60) after adjusting for variables that differed between patients and controls (smoking habits, diabetes, years of education and marital status).
Conclusions—In this large case-control study of PD, verified by radiographic bone loss and with a careful consideration of potential confounders, the risk of a first MI was significantly increased in patients with PD even after adjustment for confounding factors. These findings strengthen the possibility of an independent relationship between PD and MI.