The American Journal of Cardiology and Journal of Periodontology Editors’ Consensus: Periodontitis and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

This research was originally published in 2009 by Vincent E. Friedewald, Kenneth S. Kornman, James D. Beck, Robert Genco, Allison Goldfine,k Peter Libby, Steven Offenbacher, Paul M. Ridker, Thomas E. Van Dyke, and William C. Roberts.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Acknowledgment: This Editors' Consensus is supported by an educational grant from Colgate-Palmolive, Inc., New York, New York, and is based on a meeting of the authors held in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 9, 2009.

Disclosure: Dr. Friedewald has received honoraria for speaking from Novartis, East Hanover, New Jersey. Dr. Kornman is a full-time employee and shareholder of Interleukin Genetics, Waltham, Massachusetts, which owns patents on genetic biomarkers for chronic inflammatory diseases. Dr. Genco is a consultant to Merck, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. Dr. Ridker has received research support from AstraZeneca, Wilmington, Delaware; Novartis; Pfizer,...

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Usefulness of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease to Identify Individuals with Elevated Inflammatory Markers at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

This research was originally published in 2008 by Heidi Mochari, MPH, RD, John T. Grbic, DMD, M Med Sc, Lori Mosca, MD, MPH, PhD.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation may represent a common pathophysiology. Oral health screening in the context of CVD risk assessment represents a potential opportunity to identify persons at risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-reported oral health status is independently associated with inflammatory markers and if oral health assessment as part of CVD risk screening can identify at-risk persons without traditional CVD risk factors. A baseline analysis was conducted among participants in the NHLBI Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health (F.I.T. Heart) (n=421; mean age 48±13.5y; 36% nonwhite) without CVD or diabetes who underwent standardized assessment of oral health,...

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Clinical Periodontal and Microbiologic Parameters in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

This research was originally published in 2009 by Jamal M. Stein, Bernhard Kuch, Georg Conrads, Stefan Fickl, Jaroslaw Chrobot, Susanne Schulz, Christina Ocklenburg and Ralf Smeets.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

 

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of clinical periodontal parameters and the presence of periodontal pathogens in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: A total of 104 subjects (54 patients with AMI and 50 healthy controls) were included. Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa; previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf; previously T. forsythensis), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) using dot-blot hybridization.

Results: Patients with AMI had a significantly higher frequency of probing depths (PDs) >or=4 mm than...

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Invasion of Aortic and Heart Endothelial Cells by Porphyromonas gingivalis

This research was originally published in 1998 by Rajashri G. Despande, Mahfuz B. Khan and Caroline Attardo Genco.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Invasion of host cells is believed to be an important strategy utilized by a number of pathogens, which affords them protection from the host immune system. The connective tissues of the periodontium are extremely well vascularized, which allows invading microorganisms, such as the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, to readily enter the bloodstream. However, the ability of P. gingivalis to actively invade endothelial cells has not been previously examined. In this study, we demonstrate that P. gingivalis can invade bovine and human endothelial cells as assessed by an antibiotic protection assay and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. P. gingivalis A7436 was demonstrated to adhere to and to invade fetal bovine heart endothelial cells (FBHEC), bovine...

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Detection of Periodontal Bacteria in Atheromatous Plaques by Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

This research was originally published in 2011 by Elena Figuero , María Sánchez-Beltrán, Susana Cuesta-Frechoso, Jose María Tejerina, Jose Antonio del Castro, Jose María Gutiérrez, David Herrera, Mariano Sanz.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Background. In recent years, increasing evidence regarding the potential association between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been elicited. The available evidence underlines the importance of detecting periodontal pathogens on atheromatous plaques as the first step in demonstrating the causal relationship between both entities. It is the main aim of this investigation to detect periodontitis-associated bacteria from carotid artery atheromatous plaques recovered from patients who received an endarterectomy, using strict sample procurement and laboratory procedures.

Methods. Atheromatous plaques from endarterectomies from carotid...

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Bacterial Signatures in Thrombus Aspirates of Patients with Myocardial Infarction

This research was originally published in 2013 by Tanja Pessi, Vesa Karhunen, Pasi P. Karjalainen, Antti Ylitalo, Juhani K. Airaksinen, Matti Niemi, Mikko Pietila, Kari Lounatmaa, Teppo Haapaniemi, Terho Lehtimäki, Reijo Laaksonen, Pekka J. Karhunen and Jussi Mikkelsson.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Background—Infectious agents, especially bacteria and their components originating from the oral cavity or respiratory tract have been suggested to contribute to inflammation in the coronary plaque, leading to rupture and the subsequent development of coronary thrombus. We aimed to measure bacterial DNA in thrombus aspirates of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and to check for possible association between bacteria findings and oral pathology in the same cohort.

Methods and Results—Thrombus aspirates and arterial blood from patients with ST-elevation MI undergoing primary percutaneous...

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Quantitative detection of periodontopathic bacteria in atherosclerotic plaques from coronary arteries

This research was originally published in 2009 by Elerson Gaetti-Jardim, Jr, Silvia L. Marcelino, Alfredo C. R. Feitosa, Giuseppe A. Romito and Mario J. Avila-Campos.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria, are thought to be aetiological factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum–periodonticum–simiae group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Tannerella forsythia in atheromatous plaques from coronary arteries was determined by real-time PCR. Forty-four patients displaying cardiovascular disease were submitted to periodontal examination and endarterectomy of coronary arteries. Approximately 60–100 mg atherosclerotic tissue was removed surgically and DNA was obtained. Quantitative detection of periodontopathic bacteria was...

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Periodontal Microbiota and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness : The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST)

This research was originally published in 2012 by Moïse Desvarieux, MD, PhD; Ryan T. Demmer, MPH; Tatjana Rundek, MD, PhD; Bernadette Boden-Albala, DrPH; David R. Jacobs, Jr, PhD; Ralph L. Sacco, MD, MS; and Panos N. Papapanou, DDS, PhD.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Background—Chronic infections, including periodontal infections, may predispose to cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between periodontal microbiota and subclinical atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results—Of 1056 persons (age 699 years) with no history of stroke or myocardial infarction enrolled in the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST), we analyzed 657 dentate subjects. Among these subjects, 4561 subgingival plaque samples were collected (average of 7 samples/subject) and quantitatively assessed for 11 known periodontal bacteria by DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization. Extensive in-person...

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Periodontitis Increases the Risk of a First Myocardial Infarction: A Report From the PAROKRANK Study

This research was originally published in 2016 by Bradley Field Bale, Amy Lynn Doneen and David John Vigerust.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Background—The relationship between periodontitis (PD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is debated. PD is common in patients with CVD. It has been postulated that PD could be causally related to the risk for CVD, a hypothesis tested in PAROKRANK.

Methods and Results—805 patients (age < 75 years) with a first MI and 805 age (mean 62±8) gender (male 81%) and area matched controls without MI underwent standardized dental examination including panoramic x-ray. The periodontal status was defined as healthy (80% remaining bone) or as mild-moderate (79-66%) or severe PD (<66%). Great efforts were made to collect information on possibly related confounders (§100 variables). Statistical comparisons included Student’s pair-wise t-test and Mc Nemar´s test...

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Antibodies to Periodontal Pathogens and Stroke Risk

This research was originally published in 2004 by Pirkko J. Pussinen, Georg Alfthan, Harri Rissanen, Antti Reunanen, Sirkka Asikainen and Paul Knekt.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

Background and Purpose

The association between cerebrovascular events and periodontitis has been found in few studies based on clinical periodontal examinations. However, evidence on the association between periodontal pathogens and stroke is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate whether elevated levels of serum antibodies to major periodontal pathogens predict stroke in a case–control study.

Methods

The study population comprised 6950 subjects (aged 45 to 64 years) who participated in the Mobile Clinic Health Survey in 1973 to 1976 in Finland. During a follow-up of 13 years, a total of 173 subjects had a stroke. From these, 64 subjects had already experienced a stroke or had signs of coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline,...

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