Usefulness of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease to Identify Individuals with Elevated Inflammatory Markers at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

This research was originally published in 2008 by Heidi Mochari, MPH, RD,John T. Grbic, DMD, M Med Sc and Lori Mosca, MD, MPH, PhD.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation may represent a common pathophysiology. Oral health screening in the context of CVD risk assessment represents a potential opportunity to identify persons at risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-reported oral health status is independently associated with inflammatory markers and if oral health assessment as part of CVD risk screening can identify at-risk persons without traditional CVD risk factors. A baseline analysis was conducted among participants in the NHLBI Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health (F.I.T. Heart) (n=421; mean age 48±13.5y; 36% nonwhite) without CVD or diabetes who underwent standardized assessment of oral health,...

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THE MOUTH: The Missing Piece to Overall Wellness and Lower Medical Costs

This research was originally published in 2014 .

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

Executive Summary

Chronic medical conditions are a widespread issue, affecting an estimated one out of every two adults over 21. And, periodontitis, also known as gum disease, is an epidemic of its own with 47% of Americans having the disease at any one time.

To understand if there’s a connection between the two, United Concordia pursued original research conducted by Dr. Marjorie Jeffcoat, Professor of Periodontology and Dean Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania School Of Dentistry. The study, published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, was conducted on a comprehensive, five-year data set in collaboration with our parent company, Highmark Health, Inc. and evaluated the impact of gum disease treatment on medical costs and hospitalizations for members with certain chronic medical conditions and women who were pregnant. Using medical claims data...

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Age-Dependent Associations Between Chronic Periodontitis/Edentulism and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

This research was originally published in 2008 by Thomas Dietrich, DMD, MD, MPH; Monik Jimenez, SM; Elizabeth A. Krall Kaye, MPH, PhD; Pantel S. Vokonas, MD And Raul I. Garcia, DMD, MMSc.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

Background

Several epidemiological studies have suggested periodontitis as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but results have been inconsistent.

Methods and Result

We evaluated the association between clinical and radiographic measures of periodontitis, edentulism, and incident CHD (angina, myocardial infarction, or fatal CHD) among 1203 men in the VA Normative Aging and Dental Longitudinal Studies who were followed up with triennial comprehensive medical and dental examinations up to 35 years (median 24 years). Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying effects of exposure and potential confounders were fit. We found a significant dose-dependent association between periodontitis and CHD incidence among...

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Changes in Clinical and Microbiological Periodontal Profiles relate to progression of Carotid Intima -Media Thickness: The oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study

This research was originally published in 2013 by Moïse Desvarieux, MD, PhD; Ryan T. Demmer, PhD, MPH; David R. Jacobs, Jr, PhD; Panos N. Papapanou, DDS, PhD; Ralph L. Sacco, MD, MS and Tatjana Rundek, MD, PhD.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

Background

No prospective studies exist on the relationship between change in periodontal clinical and microbiological status and progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results

The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study examined 420 participants at baseline (688 years old) and follow-up. Over a 3-year median follow-up time, clinical probing depth (PD) measurements were made at 75 766 periodontal sites, and 5008 subgingival samples were collected from dentate participants (average of 7 samples/subject per visit over 2 visits) and quantitatively assessed for 11 known periodontal bacterial species by DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization. Common carotid artery...

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Effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin on endothelial cells

This research was originally published in 2013 by Anelia Dietmann, Alban Millonig, Valery Combes, Pierre-Olivier Couraud , Scott C. Kachlany and Georges E. Grau.

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

ABSTRACT

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a human pathogen that produces leukotoxin (LtxA) as a major virulence factor. In this study the effect of LtxA on microvascular endothelial cell viability and phenotype was studied. High doses of single LtxA treatment (500 ng/ml to 5 mg/ml) significantly and irreversibly decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, as assessed by tetrazolium salt and annexin V assay, respectively. Apoptosis was partially inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. LtxA caused a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase after 72 h. Between 500 ng/ml and 5 mg/ml, after long- or short-term stimulation LtxA increased the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as the percentages of endothelial cells...

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High-risk periodontal pathogens contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

In 2016 this research was published by Bradley Field Bale, Amy Lynn Doneen and David John Vigerust. Below is a short excerpt from the document. 

We have curated this article as a reference point for The Larkin Protocol.

Periodontal disease (PD) is generated by microorganisms. These microbes can enter the general circulation causing a bacteraemia. The result can be adverse systemic effects, which could promote conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Level A evidence supports that PD is independently associated with arterial disease. PD is a common chronic condition affecting the majority of Americans 30 years of age and older. Atherosclerosis remains the largest cause of death and disability. Studies indicate that the adverse cardiovascular effects from PD are due to a few putative or high-risk bacteria: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola or Fusobacterium nucleatum. There are three accepted essential...

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